Minggu, 21 September 2008
Bapak Endang J. S.Pd
(SMAN 1 Banjar)
(Indonesia University of Education)
Electronic learning (or e-Learning or eLearning) is a type of education where the medium of instruction is computer technology. No in-person interaction may take place in some instances. E-learning is used interchangeably in a wide variety of contexts. In companies, it refers to the strategies that use the company network to deliver training courses to employees. In the USA, it is defined as a planned teaching/learning experience that uses a wide spectrum of technologies, mainly Internet or computer-based, to reach learners at a distance. Lately in most Universities, e-learning is used to define a specific mode to attend a course or programmers’ of study where the students rarely, if ever, attend face-to-face for on-campus access to educational facilities, because they study online.
• 1 Market
• 2 Growth of e-learning
• 3 Technology
• 4 Services
• 5 Goals of e-learning
o 5.1 Computer-based learning
o 5.2 Computer-based training
• 6 Pedagogical elements
• 7 Pedagogical approaches or perspectives
• 8 Reusability, standards and learning objects
• 9 Communication technologies used in e-learning
• 10 E-Learning 2.0
• 11 Computer-aided assessment and learning design
• 12 See also
• 13 External links
The worldwide e-learning industry is estimated to be worth over 38 billion euros according to conservative estimates, although in the European Union only about 20% of e-learning products are produced within the common market . Developments in internet and multimedia technologies are the basic enabler of e-learning, with content, technologies and services being identified as the three key sectors of the e-learning industry. 
Growth of e-learning
By 2006, nearly 3.5 million students were participating in on-line learning at institutions of higher education in the United States. Many higher education, for-profit institutions, now offer on-line classes. By contrast, only about half of private, non-profit schools offer them. The Sloan report, based on a poll of academic leaders, says that students generally appear to be at least as satisfied with their on-line classes as they are with traditional ones. Private Institutions may become more involved with on-line presentations as the cost of instituting such a system decreases. Properly trained staff must also be hired to work with students on-line. These staff members must be able to not only understand the content area, but also be highly trained in the use of the computer and Internet. Online education is rapidly increasing, and online doctoral programs have even developed at leading research universities.
As early as 1993, Graziadi, W. D.  described an online computer-delivered lecture, tutorial and assessment project using electronic Mail, two VAX Notes conferences and Gopher/Lynx  together with several software programs that allowed students and instructor to create a Virtual Instructional Classroom Environment in Science (VICES) in Research, Education, Service & Teaching (REST).  In 1997 Graziadei, W.D., et al.,  published an article entitled "Building Asynchronous and Synchronous Teaching-Learning Environments: Exploring a Course/Classroom Management System Solution".  They described a process at the State University of New York (SUNY) of evaluating products and developing an overall strategy for technology-based course development and management in teaching-learning. The product(s) had to be easy to use and maintain, portable, replicable, scalable, and immediately affordable, and they had to have a high probability of success with long-term cost-effectiveness. Today many technologies can be, and are, used in e-Learning, from blogs to collaborative software, ePortfolios, and virtual classrooms. Most eLearning situations use combinations of the these techniques.
Along with the terms learning technology, instructional technology, and Educational Technology, the term is generally used to refer to the use of technology in learning in a much broader sense than the computer-based training or Computer Aided Instruction of the 1980s. It is also broader than the terms Online Learning or Online Education which generally refer to purely web-based learning. In cases where mobile technologies are used, the term M-learning has become more common. E-learning, however, also has implications beyond just the technology and refers to the actual learning that takes place using these systems.
E-learning is naturally suited to distance learning and flexible learning, but can also be used in conjunction with face-to-face teaching, in which case the term Blended learning is commonly used. E-Learning pioneer Bernard Luskin argues that the "E" must be understood to have broad meaning if e-Learning is to be effective. Luskin says that the "e" should be interpreted to mean exciting, energetic, enthusiastic, emotional, extended, excellent, and educational in addition to "electronic" that is a traditional national interpretation. This broader interpretation allows for 21st century applications and brings learning and media psychology into the equation.
In higher education especially, the increasing tendency is to create a Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) (which is sometimes combined with a Management Information System (MIS) to create a Managed Learning Environment) in which all aspects of a course are handled through a consistent user interface standard throughout the institution. A growing number of physical universities, as well as newer online-only colleges, have begun to offer a select set of academic degree and certificate programs via the Internet at a wide range of levels and in a wide range of disciplines. While some programs require students to attend some campus classes or orientations, many are delivered completely online. In addition, several universities offer online student support services, such as online advising and registration, e-counseling, online textbook purchase, student governments and student newspapers.
e-Learning can also refer to educational web sites such as those offering learning scenarios, worksheets and interactive exercises for children. The term is also used extensively in the business sector where it generally refers to cost-effective online training.
E-learning services have evolved since computers were first used in education. There is a trend to move toward blended learning services, where computer-based activities are integrated with practical or classroom-based situations.
Goals of e-learning
E-Learning lessons are generally designed to guide students through information or to help students perform in specific tasks. Information based e-Learning content communicates information to the student. Examples include content that distributes the history or facts related to a service, company, or product. In information-based content, there is no specific skill to be learned. In performance-based content, the lessons build off of a procedural skill in which the student is expected to increase proficiency.
Computer Based Learning, sometimes abbreviated to CBL, refers to the use of computers as a key component of the educational environment. While this can refer to the use of computers in a classroom, the term more broadly refers to a structured environment in which computers are used for teaching purposes. The concept is generally seen as being distinct from the use of computers in ways where learning is at least a peripheral element of the experience (e.g. computer games and web browsing).
Computer-based training (CBT) services are where a student learns by executing special training programs on a computer relating to their occupation. CBT is especially effective for training people to use computer applications because the CBT program can be integrated with the applications so that students can practice using the application as they learn. Historically, CBTs growth has been hampered by the enormous resources required: human resources to create a CBT program, and hardware resources needed to run it. However, the increase in PC computing power, and especially the growing prevalence of computers equipped with CD-ROMs, is making CBT a more viable option for corporations and individuals alike. Many PC applications now come with some modest form of CBT, often called a tutorial. Web-based training (WBT) is a type of training that is similar to CBT; however, it is delivered over the Internet using a web browser. Web-based training frequently includes interactive methods, such as bulletin boards, chat rooms, instant messaging, videoconferencing, and discussion threads. Web based training is usually a self-paced learning medium though some systems allow for online testing and evaluation at specific times.
Pedagogical elements are an attempt to define structures or units of educational material. For example, this could be a lesson, an assignment, a multiple choice question, a quiz, a discussion group or a case study. These units should be format independent, so although it may be implemented in any of the following methods, pedagogical structures would not include a textbook, a web page, a video conference or an iPod video.
When beginning to create e-Learning content, the pedagogical approaches need to be evaluated. Simple pedagogical approaches make it easy to create content, but lack flexibility, richness and downstream functionality. On the other hand, complex pedagogical approaches can be difficult to set up and slow to develop, though they have the potential to provide more engaging learning experiences for students. Somewhere between these extremes is an ideal pedagogy that allows a particular educator to effectively create educational materials while simultaneously providing the most engaging educational experiences for students.
Pedagogical approaches or perspectives
It is possible to use various pedagogical approaches for eLearning which include:
• instructional design - the traditional pedagogy of instruction which is curriculum focused, and is developed by a centralized educating group or a single teacher.
• social-constructivist - this pedagogy is particularly well afforded by the use of discussion forums, blogs, wiki and on-line collaborative activities. It is a collaborative approach that opens educational content creation to a wider group including the students themselves.
• Laurillard's Conversational Model is also particularly relevant to eLearning, and Gilly Salmon's Five-Stage Model is a pedagogical approach to the use of discussion boards .
• Cognitive perspective focuses on the cognitive processes involved in learning as well as how the brain works.
• Emotional perspective focuses on the emotional aspects of learning, like motivation, engagement, fun, etc.
• Behavioural perspective focuses on the skills and behavioural outcomes of the learning process. Role-playing and application to on-the-job settings.
• Contextual perspective focuses on the environmental and social aspects which can stimulate learning. Interaction with other people, collaborative discovery and the importance of peer support as well as pressure.
Reusability, standards and learning objects
Much effort has been put into the technical reuse of electronically-based teaching materials and in particular creating or re-using Learning Objects. These are self contained units that are properly tagged with keywords, or other metadata, and often stored in an XML file format. Creating a course requires putting together a sequence of learning objects. There are both proprietary and open, non-commercial and commercial, peer-reviewed repositories of learning objects such as the Merlot repository.
A common standard format for e-learning content is SCORM whilst other specifications allow for the transporting of "learning objects" (Schools Interoperability Framework) or categorizing meta-data (LOM).
These standards themselves are early in the maturity process with the oldest being 8 years old. They are also relatively vertical specific: SIF is primarily pK-12, LOM is primarily Corp, Military and Higher Ed, and SCORM is primarily Military and Corp with some Higher Ed. PESC- the Post-Secondary Education Standards Council- is also making headway in developing standards and learning objects for the Higher Ed space, while SIF is beginning to seriously turn towards Instructional and Curriculum learning objects.
In the US pK12 space there are a host of content standards that are critical as well- the NCES data standards are a prime example. Each state government's content standards and achievement benchmarks are critical metadata for linking e-learning objects in that space.
Communication technologies used in e-learning
Communication technologies are generally categorized as asynchronous or synchronous. Asynchronous activities use technologies such as blogs, wikis, and discussion boards. The idea here is that participants may engage in the exchange of ideas or information without the dependency of other participants involvement at the same time. Electronic mail (Email) is also asynchronous in that mail can be sent or received without having both the participants’ involvement at the same time.
Synchronous activities involve the exchange of ideas and information with one or more participants during the same period of time. A face to face discussion is an example of synchronous communications. Synchronous activities occur with all participants joining in at once, as with an online chat session or a virtual classroom or meeting.
Virtual classrooms and meetings can often use a mix of communication technologies.
In many models, the writing community and the communication channels relate with the E-learning and the M-learning communities. Both the communities provide a general overview of the basic learning models and the activities required for the participants to join the learning sessions across the virtual classroom or even across standard classrooms enabled by technology. Many activities, essential for the learners in these environments, require frequent chat sessions in the form of virtual classrooms and/or blog meetings.
The term e-Learning 2.0 is used to refer to new ways of thinking about e-learning inspired by the emergence of Web 2.0. From an e-Learning 2.0 perspective, conventional e-learning systems were based on instructional packets that were delivered to students using Internet technologies. The role of the student consisted in learning from the readings and preparing assignments. Assignments were evaluated by the teacher. In contrast, the new e-learning places increased emphasis on social learning and use of social software such as blogs, wikis, podcasts and virtual worlds such as Second Life. This phenomenon has also been referred to as Long Tail Learning
The first 10 years of e-learning (e-learning 1.0) was focused on using the internet to replicate the instructor-led experience. Content was designed to lead a learner through the content, providing a wide and ever-increasing set of interactions, experiences, assessments, and simulations. E-learning 2.0, by contrast (patterned after Web 2.0) is built around collaboration. e-learning 2.0 assumes that knowledge (as meaning and understanding) is socially constructed. Learning takes place through conversations about content and grounded interaction about problems and actions. Advocates of social learning claim that one of the best ways to learn something is to teach it to others.
As one example, Second Life has recently become one of the virtual classroom environments used in colleges and universities, including University of Edinburgh (UK) Princeton University (USA), Rice University (USA), University of Derby (UK), Vassar College (USA), the University of Plymouth (UK) and the Open University (UK),. In 2007 Second Life started to be used for foreign language tuition . Both Second Life and real life language educators have begun to use the virtual world for language tuition. English (as a foreign language) has gained a presence through several schools, including British Council projects which have focused on the Teen Grid. Spain’s language and cultural institute “Instituto Cervantes” has an island on Second Life. A list of educational projects (including some language schools) in Second Life can be found on the SimTeach site. SLanguages 2008 was the 2nd annual conference of language education using virtual worlds such as Second Life. The event took place in Second Life at the EduNation islands.
There is also an increased use of virtual classrooms (online presentations delivered live) as an online learning platform and classroom for a diverse set of education providers such as Fox School of Business for Templer University, Grades Grow, Minnesota State Colleges and Universities, and Sachem. Webex is a Cisco Web Meetings and Collaboration Solution. The platform has worked for educational institutions because of real time collaboration using an interactive whiteboard, chat, and VOIP technology that allows audio and video sharing. In distance learning situations, while replacing the classroom with features, institutions have also looked for security features which are inherently strong in a Cisco powered collaboration environment. The downside is that Webex is not a free platform like WiZiQ, Moodle or Lectureshare, and fees are paid per 'host' of a classroom or a meeting.
Another real time collaboration provider making headway is WebTrain. The Technology in Business Schools Roundtable, a group representing over 70 Canadian and US business schools, announced a program for their AACSB accredited members and affiliated colleges and universites to use WebTrain for faculty meetings, student association meetings, virtual live classes, homework assistance, tutoring, teacher aid assistance, student technical support and remote control, lecture broadcasting, board meetings, virtual labs and anonymous drug, rape and depression counseling. The announcement stated TBS will assist member business schools and their associated colleges and universities with implementation planning and rollout assistance to help increase the success of e-learning initiatives. The announcement also stated WebTrain will provide their hosted services free to the business school and their associated college or university for a fiscal school year to reduce financial risk related to using an enterprise class hosted service.
Computer-aided assessment and learning design
Computer-aided Assessment (also but less commonly referred to as E-assessment), ranging from automated multiple-choice tests to more sophisticated systems is becoming increasingly common. With some systems, feedback can be geared towards a student's specific mistakes or the computer can navigate the student through a series of questions adapting to what the student appears to have learned or not learned.
The best examples follow a Formative Assessment structure and are called "Online Formative Assessment". This involves making an initial formative assessment by sifting out the incorrect answers. The author/teacher will then explain what the pupil should have done with each question. It will then give the pupil at least one practice at each slight variation of sifted out questions. This is the formative learning stage. The next stage is to make a Summative Assessment by a new set of questions only covering the topics previously taught. Some will take this even further and repeat the cycle such as BOFA which is aimed at the Eleven plus exam set in the UK.
The term learning design has sometimes come to refer to the type of activity enabled by software such as the open-source system LAMS  which supports sequences of activities that can be both adaptive and collaborative. The IMS Learning Design specification is intended as a standard format for learning designs, and IMS LD Level A is supported in LAMS V2.
ICT in Education
• Blended learning
• Computer-based testing
• Distance education
• Flexible Learning
• Online learning community
• Virtual education
• Online music education
Kamis, 04 September 2008
Add & Edited by:
(Founder Banjar Cyber School)
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Indonesia University of Education
Education gives to Man nothing which he might not educe out of himself;
it gives him that which he might educe out himself, only quicker and more
easily. In the same way too, Revelation gives nothing to the human species,
which the human reason left to itself might not attain; only it has given, and
still gives to it, the most important of these things earlier.
Education encompasses both the teaching and learning of knowledge, proper conduct, and technical competency. It thus focuses on the cultivation of skills, trades or professions, as well as mental, moral & aesthetic development.
Formal education consists of systematic instruction, teaching and training by professional teachers. This consists of the application of pedagogy and the development of curricula. In a liberal education tradition, teachers draw on many different disciplines for their lessons, including psychology, philosophy, information technology, linguistics, biology, and sociology. Teachers in specialized professions such as astrophysics, law, or zoology may teach only in a narrow area, usually as professors at institutions of higher learning. There is much specialist instruction in fields of trade for those who want specific skills, such as required to be a pilot, for example. Finally, there is an array of educational opportunity in the informal sphere- for this reason, society subsidizes institutions such as museums and libraries. Informal education also includes knowledge and skills learned and refined during the course of life, including education that comes from experience in practicing a profession.
The right to education is a fundamental human right. Since 1952, Article 2 of the first Protocol to the European Convention on Human Rights obliges all signatory parties to guarantee the right to education. At world level, the United Nations' International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights of 1966 guarantees this right under its Article 13.
• 1 Systems of formal education
o 1.1 Primary education
o 1.2 Secondary education
o 1.3 Higher education
o 1.4 Adult education
o 1.5 Alternative education
o 1.6 Emotional/Human education
• 2 Process
o 2.1 Curriculum
o 2.2 Learning modalities
o 2.3 Teaching
o 2.4 Technology
• 3 History
• 4 Philosophy
• 5 Psychology
• 6 Economic implications of Education
• 7 Sociology of education
o 7.1 Education in developing countries
o 7.2 Internationalisation
• 8 See also
• 9 References
• 10 External links
The term international education can mean many different things and its definition is debated. Some have defined two general meanings to the concept of international education in regard to students. The first refers to education that transcends national borders through the exchange of people, as in study abroad. The second, explored in depth here, is a comprehensive approach to education that intentionally prepares students to be active and engaged participants in an interconnected world.
Understanding of a broad array of phenomena is enhanced and deepened through examination of the cultures, languages, environmental situations, governments, political relations, religions, geography, and history of the world. While definitions vary in the precise language used, international education is generally taken to include:
1. Knowledge of other world regions & cultures;
2. Familiarity with international and global issues;
3. Skills in working effectively in global or cross-cultural environments, and using information from different sources around the world;
4. Ability to communicate in multiple languages; and
5. Dispositions towards respect and concern for other cultures and peoples.
International Education is also a major part of international development. Professionals and students wishing to be a part of international education development are able to learn through organizations and university and college programs. Organizations around the world use education as a means to development. The United Nations Millennium Development Goals include to education specific goals:
Millennium Development Goals
Achieve universal primary education in all countries by 2015 and eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education by 2005
Other mention of education in regard to international development:
Education For All (EFA): www.unesco.org/education/efa/wef_2000 An international strategy to operazionalize the Dakar Framework for Action; The World Education Forum (Dakar 2000) agreed to reach 6 goals by 2015: o expand early childhood care and education o improve access to complete, free schooling of good quality for all primary school-age children o greatly increase learning opportunities for youth and adults o improve adult literacy rates by 50% o eliminate gender disparities in schooling o improve all aspects of education quality.
Dakar Framework for Action
UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (2005–2014) -highlight the central role of education in the pursuit of sustainable development. www.unesco.org/education/desd
See also comparative education; and Liberalism, Realism, Power Transition Theory,International Development, as focus areas that provide insight into international phenomena relevant to "International Education."
International Education both as a field of study focusing on study abroad and preparing students for international occupations as well as as an active part of international development is taught in many colleges and universities around the world.
• 1 List of Colleges and Universities offering courses specifically in International Education
• 2 List of Organizations involved in International Educational Development
• 3 List of the Academic Journals
• 4 Sources
• 5 Further reading
• 6 External links
List of Colleges and Universities offering courses specifically in International Education
Harvard Graduate School of Education http://www.hgse.harvard.edu International Education Policy program http://www.gse.harvard.edu/academics/masters/iep/index.html
The George Washington University http://www.gwu.edu Graduate School of Education and Human Development http://gsehd.gwu.edu Program: International Education
American University http://www.american.edu School of Education, Teaching, and Health http://www.american.edu/cas/seth Program: International Training and Education
NYU Steinhardt http://steinhardt.nyu.edu/humsocsci/international/ Steinhardt School of Culture, Education, and Human Development Program: International Education
Penn State http://www.ed.psu.edu/cied/ College of Education Program: Comparative and International Education
University of Massachusetts http://www.umass.edu Graduate School of Education http://www.umass.edu/education/ Program: International Education http://www.umass.edu/education/academics/epra/ed_intl.shtml Center for International Education (CIE) http://www.umass.edu/cie/
University of California, Irvine http://internationalstudies.ss.uci.edu/
List of Organizations involved in International Educational Development
UNESCO www.unesco.org UNESCO is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. Its stated purpose is to contribute to peace and security by promoting international collaboration through education, science, and culture in order to further universal respect for justice, the rule of law, and the human rights and fundamental freedoms proclaimed in the UN Charter.
United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) www.unicef.org UNICEF is currently focused on 5 primary priorities: Child Survival and Development, Basic Education and Gender Equality (including girls' education), Child protection from violence, exploitation and abuse, HIV/AIDS and children, and Policy advocacy and partnerships for children’s rights.
United National High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) www.unhcr.org The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees is mandated to lead and co-ordinate international action to protect refugees and resolve refugee problems worldwide. Its primary purpose is to safeguard the rights and well-being of refugees. It strives to ensure that everyone can exercise the right to seek asylum and find safe refuge in another State, with the option to return home voluntarily, integrate locally or to resettle in a third country.
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)www.undp.org UNDP is the UN's global development network, an organization advocating for change and connecting countries to knowledge, experience and resources to help people build a better life. It is on the ground in 166 countries, working with them on their own solutions to global and national development challenges. As they develop local capacity, they draw on the people of UNDP and our wide range of partners.
United States Agency for International Development (USAID)www.usaid.gov USAID is an independent agency that provides economic, development and humanitarian assistance around the world in support of the foreign policy goals of the United States. USAID is the principal U.S. agency to extend assistance to countries recovering from disaster, trying to escape poverty, and engaging in democratic reforms.
World Bank International Development Program (IDP)www.worldbank.org/ida The International Development Association (IDA) is the part of the World Bank that helps the world’s poorest countries. Established in 1960, IDA aims to reduce poverty by providing interest-free credits and grants for programs that boost economic growth, reduce inequalities and improve people’s living conditions.
The Carnegie Corporation- International Development Program (IDP) www.carnegie.org/sub/program/intl_development.html The International Development Program (IDP) was established in 1999 for the express purpose of carrying out Carnegie Corporation activities in sub-Saharan Africa. IDP “attempt[s] to strengthen a limited number of Commonwealth African universities to serve as models of successful transformation, assist the cause of women’s higher education there, and position selected African public libraries for the information age.”
The International Economic Development Council, IEDC,based in Washington, DC provides the leading source of education for economic developers at all levels. Courses are offered throughout the year in different geographical locations, ranging from basic economic development courses to Certified Economic Development programs.
International Development Exchange www.idex.org IDEX is a non-profit organization that partners with grassroots groups in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, while actively engaging and educating North Americans in the challenges facing communities in these regions.
Academy for Educational Development www.aed.org AED is a bridge, a link between the problem and the solution, the need and the resource, people and their potential. It is an independent, nonprofit organization committed to solving critical social problems and building the capacity of individuals, communities, and institutions to become more self-sufficient. AED works in all the major areas of human development, with a focus on improving education, health, and economic opportunities for the least advantaged in the United States and developing countries throughout the world.
National Association of Development Organizations www.nado.org The National Association of Development Organizations provides advocacy, education, research and training for the nation's regional development organizations. Building on nearly four decades of experience, the association offers its members exclusive access to a variety of services and benefits -- all of which are designed to enhance the ability of regional development organizations to foster "regional solutions" to local government, business and community needs.
Society for International Development www.sidw.org Society for International Development is a global network of individuals and institutions concerned with development. In its pursuit for social justice and institutional change, SID plays an important mediating and facilitating role among progressive civil society groups, connecting activists, intellectuals, academics and policy-makers working at community, national and international level.
Institute of International Education (IIE) www.iie.org Information about IIE international training programs, research on international education issues, and IEE services for students, advisers, or human resources professionals.
United Nations www.un.org The purposes of the United Nations, as set forth in the Charter, are to maintain international peace and security; to develop friendly relations among nations; to cooperate in solving international economic, social, cultural and humanitarian problems and in promoting respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms; and to be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations in attaining these ends.
NAFSA: Association of International Educators : supports those engaged in international education and exchange and global workforce development programs with educational programs, conferences, and publications. NAFSA publishes the journal International Educator to encourage dialogue about the importance of international education and the current challenges faced by those supporting it.
International Education Collaborative www.intled.org The International Education Collaborative (IEC) exists to provide advocacy for and facilitate collaboration among institutions of higher learning concerned with international education issues, most particularly international student recruitment. The International Education Collabortive seeks to develop and share best practices, tools, and technology to empower each geographic region/state to achieve maximum impact in worldwide marketing and student recruiting efforts.
List of the Academic Journals
• Analytical Reports in International Education
• Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education
1. American Educational Research Journal
2. Chinese Education and Society - Focus on educational development and the confluence between NGO’s with the development of China’s education.
3. Chronicle of Higher Education
4. Comparative Education
5. Contemporary Politics
6. Educational Review
7. Environmental Education Research - Focus on sustainable development, educational development and environmental education.
8. Higher Education
9. Higher Education in Europe
10. Higher Education: The International Journal of Higher Education and Educational Planning - Focus on sustainable development, profession education, curriculum development and environmental education.
11. Intercultural Education
12. International Journal of Educational Development
13. International Review of Education
14. Journal of Developing Studies
15. Journal of Education for International Development
16. Journal of Education Policy
17. Journal of Geography in Higher Education -Focus on professional development, sustainable development, curriculum development, and higher education.
18. Journal of Humanistic Counseling, and Educational Development
19. Journal of Studies In International Education.
20. Studies in Higher Education - Focus on education development, faculty development and professional development.
21. Teaching in Higher Education - Focus on intellectual development.
22. The Development Education Journal
23. National Center for Education Statistics - Focus on faculty development, program development and public schools.
TIPS & TRIKS Sekolah di Overseas (Luar Negeri)
1. Mimpi, Harapan, Cita-cita atau dalam Islam kita Sebut Niat yang Kuat
-"If You Can Dream It You Can Do It"-
Bisikanlah dalam hati kita yang paling dalam, bahkan palung qulbo yang tiada pernah seseorang pun masuk kedalamnya. Kita ingin jadi apa? Berbuat apa? Mengabdi pada siapa?
lalu yakinlah bahwa Sang Pengatur Jagat Raya akan mendengarnya, menuntunmu pada apa yang kita harapkan.
Bukankah Jikalau "DIA yang ESA" bilamana berkenan dan berkehendak cukup BagiNya berkata "Jadilah, maka Jadilah ia". Yasin: 82
Tulislah apa yang kita harapkan dan Impikan dalam kertas yang kita sayangi. buatlah peta konsepnya. Kapan terlaksana? Bagaimana? Dengan Cara Seperti Apa? Jagalah kertas atau tulisan itu baik-baik.
2. Pilih dimana kita ingin melanjutkan studi . -"Karena Setiap pilihan mempunyai kosekuensinya masing-masing, sebanding dengan apa yang kita pilih"-
a. Negara Mana Tujuan Kita?
b. Universitas atau Sekolah mana?
c. Pilih Jurusan dari Universitas atau College yang kita pilih!
-"GOOD PEREPARATIOAN, PERFECT APPLICATION"-
Dalam kesempatan ini kita bahas dan adakan tutorial berbagai bahasa yang banyak digunakan di dunia
Untuk berlatih bahasa asing silahkan penunjung yang berbahagia dan menginkan sebuah perubahan
kunjungi alamat ini
Jamison, Kevin (2004) . "Case for the Internationalization of Virginia High School Curricula", with commentary by Ambassador James Creagan, Christine Drake Phd, Senator Richard Lugar, and various other International Education experts.
Kagan, Sharon, and Vivien Stewart. "Introduction to International Education", originally published in Phi Delta Kappan, November 2004.
Abdi, Ali A. and Ailie Cleghorn, (Eds.). (2005). Issues in African Education: Sociological Perspectives. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Carter, Carolyn S. (1999). Education and Development in Poor Rural Communities: an Interdisciplinary Research Agenda. Charleston, WV: Clearinghouse on Rural Education and Small Schools, Appalachia Educational Laboratory.
Caillods, Francoise, Gabriele Gottelmann-Duret, Keith Lewin. (Eds.). (1997). Science Education and Development: Planning and Policy Issues at the Secondary Level. Paris: Unesco, International Institute for Educational Planning; Oxford, U.K.: Pergamon.
Cummings,William K. and Noel F. McGinn (Eds.). (1997). International Handbook of Education and Development : Preparing Schools, Students, and Nations for the Twenty-first Century. Kidlington, Oxford, UK; New York: Elsevier Science.
Garrett, Roger M. (Ed.). (1984). Education and Development. London: Croom Helm; New York: St. Martin’s Press.
Haddad, Wadi D. et al. (1990). Education and Development: Evidence for New Priorities. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.
Heward, Christine and Sheila Bunwaree. (Eds.). (1999). Gender, Education, and Development: Beyond Access to Empowerment. London; New York: Zed Books; New York: Distributed in USA exclusively by St. Martin’s Press.
Lynch, James. (1997). A Human Rights Analysis. Education and Development. London; Herndon, VA: Cassell.
Lynch, James, Celia Modgil and Sohan Modgil. (Eds.). (1997). Education and Development: Tradition and Innovation. London: Cassell, 1997.
Mak, Grace C. L. (Ed.), (1996). Women, Education, and Development in Asia : Cross-National Perspectives. New York: Garland Pub.
McMahon, Walter W. (1999). Education and Development: Measuring the Social Benefits. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press.
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2008 September 4 18:03
Rabu, 03 September 2008
Jadilah seperti air. Air nampak lembut, namun memiliki potensi luar biasa. Mengalir seperti tak punya tujuan, mencari tempat-tempat rendah, mengaliri lembah-lembah. Meresap kedalam pori-pori tanah. Bahkan mengalir pasti di dalam tanah. Seperti tak punya tujuan , tapi itulah sejatinya potensi sekaligus tugas air.
Air itu tidak pernah menyerah jika menghadapi penghalang. Air akan berkumpul sampai memiliki kemampuan untuk menghancurkan penghalang itu. Atau ia akan terus berkumpul sampai sebagian dari air tersebut dapat melalui penghalang itu. Lihatlah air bendungan! Air itu mahluk "penyabar", air itu" tekun" dan "konsisten". Air yang lembut, mengalir meliuk-liuk mengikuti alur yang ada bisa menjadi dahsyat dan ganas, menghancurkan dan bahkan menebar maut, jika seluruh potensinya telah dikerahkan. Air itu mahluk "pemberani !"
Jadilah seperti air jika SMAN 1 Banjar mau tampil lebih berjaya. Jayalah SMAN 1 Banjar dengan falsafah air!
Lirik Oleh :
1. Ishak Vidia Kelana, BA (Almarhum)
2. Muharam Ardan, Drs
3. Aceng, Drs
Arrancemen Oleh :
1. Tatang Sutardi B. BA (Almarhum)