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Education gives to Man nothing which he might not educe out of himself;
it gives him that which he might educe out himself, only quicker and more
easily. In the same way too, Revelation gives nothing to the human species,
which the human reason left to itself might not attain; only it has given, and
still gives to it, the most important of these things earlier.
Education encompasses both the teaching and learning of knowledge, proper conduct, and technical competency. It thus focuses on the cultivation of skills, trades or professions, as well as mental, moral & aesthetic development.
Formal education consists of systematic instruction, teaching and training by professional teachers. This consists of the application of pedagogy and the development of curricula. In a liberal education tradition, teachers draw on many different disciplines for their lessons, including psychology, philosophy, information technology, linguistics, biology, and sociology. Teachers in specialized professions such as astrophysics, law, or zoology may teach only in a narrow area, usually as professors at institutions of higher learning. There is much specialist instruction in fields of trade for those who want specific skills, such as required to be a pilot, for example. Finally, there is an array of educational opportunity in the informal sphere- for this reason, society subsidizes institutions such as museums and libraries. Informal education also includes knowledge and skills learned and refined during the course of life, including education that comes from experience in practicing a profession.
The right to education is a fundamental human right. Since 1952, Article 2 of the first Protocol to the European Convention on Human Rights obliges all signatory parties to guarantee the right to education. At world level, the United Nations' International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights of 1966 guarantees this right under its Article 13.
• 1 Systems of formal education
o 1.1 Primary education
o 1.2 Secondary education
o 1.3 Higher education
o 1.4 Adult education
o 1.5 Alternative education
o 1.6 Emotional/Human education
• 2 Process
o 2.1 Curriculum
o 2.2 Learning modalities
o 2.3 Teaching
o 2.4 Technology
• 3 History
• 4 Philosophy
• 5 Psychology
• 6 Economic implications of Education
• 7 Sociology of education
o 7.1 Education in developing countries
o 7.2 Internationalisation
• 8 See also
• 9 References
• 10 External links
The term international education can mean many different things and its definition is debated. Some have defined two general meanings to the concept of international education in regard to students. The first refers to education that transcends national borders through the exchange of people, as in study abroad. The second, explored in depth here, is a comprehensive approach to education that intentionally prepares students to be active and engaged participants in an interconnected world.
Understanding of a broad array of phenomena is enhanced and deepened through examination of the cultures, languages, environmental situations, governments, political relations, religions, geography, and history of the world. While definitions vary in the precise language used, international education is generally taken to include:
1. Knowledge of other world regions & cultures;
2. Familiarity with international and global issues;
3. Skills in working effectively in global or cross-cultural environments, and using information from different sources around the world;
4. Ability to communicate in multiple languages; and
5. Dispositions towards respect and concern for other cultures and peoples.
International Education is also a major part of international development. Professionals and students wishing to be a part of international education development are able to learn through organizations and university and college programs. Organizations around the world use education as a means to development. The United Nations Millennium Development Goals include to education specific goals:
Millennium Development Goals
Achieve universal primary education in all countries by 2015 and eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education by 2005
Other mention of education in regard to international development:
Education For All (EFA): www.unesco.org/education/efa/wef_2000 An international strategy to operazionalize the Dakar Framework for Action; The World Education Forum (Dakar 2000) agreed to reach 6 goals by 2015: o expand early childhood care and education o improve access to complete, free schooling of good quality for all primary school-age children o greatly increase learning opportunities for youth and adults o improve adult literacy rates by 50% o eliminate gender disparities in schooling o improve all aspects of education quality.
Dakar Framework for Action
UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (2005–2014) -highlight the central role of education in the pursuit of sustainable development. www.unesco.org/education/desd
See also comparative education; and Liberalism, Realism, Power Transition Theory,International Development, as focus areas that provide insight into international phenomena relevant to "International Education."
International Education both as a field of study focusing on study abroad and preparing students for international occupations as well as as an active part of international development is taught in many colleges and universities around the world.
• 1 List of Colleges and Universities offering courses specifically in International Education
• 2 List of Organizations involved in International Educational Development
• 3 List of the Academic Journals
• 4 Sources
• 5 Further reading
• 6 External links
List of Colleges and Universities offering courses specifically in International Education
Harvard Graduate School of Education http://www.hgse.harvard.edu International Education Policy program http://www.gse.harvard.edu/academics/masters/iep/index.html
The George Washington University http://www.gwu.edu Graduate School of Education and Human Development http://gsehd.gwu.edu Program: International Education
American University http://www.american.edu School of Education, Teaching, and Health http://www.american.edu/cas/seth Program: International Training and Education
NYU Steinhardt http://steinhardt.nyu.edu/humsocsci/international/ Steinhardt School of Culture, Education, and Human Development Program: International Education
Penn State http://www.ed.psu.edu/cied/ College of Education Program: Comparative and International Education
University of Massachusetts http://www.umass.edu Graduate School of Education http://www.umass.edu/education/ Program: International Education http://www.umass.edu/education/academics/epra/ed_intl.shtml Center for International Education (CIE) http://www.umass.edu/cie/
University of California, Irvine http://internationalstudies.ss.uci.edu/
List of Organizations involved in International Educational Development
UNESCO www.unesco.org UNESCO is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. Its stated purpose is to contribute to peace and security by promoting international collaboration through education, science, and culture in order to further universal respect for justice, the rule of law, and the human rights and fundamental freedoms proclaimed in the UN Charter.
United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) www.unicef.org UNICEF is currently focused on 5 primary priorities: Child Survival and Development, Basic Education and Gender Equality (including girls' education), Child protection from violence, exploitation and abuse, HIV/AIDS and children, and Policy advocacy and partnerships for children’s rights.
United National High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) www.unhcr.org The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees is mandated to lead and co-ordinate international action to protect refugees and resolve refugee problems worldwide. Its primary purpose is to safeguard the rights and well-being of refugees. It strives to ensure that everyone can exercise the right to seek asylum and find safe refuge in another State, with the option to return home voluntarily, integrate locally or to resettle in a third country.
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)www.undp.org UNDP is the UN's global development network, an organization advocating for change and connecting countries to knowledge, experience and resources to help people build a better life. It is on the ground in 166 countries, working with them on their own solutions to global and national development challenges. As they develop local capacity, they draw on the people of UNDP and our wide range of partners.
United States Agency for International Development (USAID)www.usaid.gov USAID is an independent agency that provides economic, development and humanitarian assistance around the world in support of the foreign policy goals of the United States. USAID is the principal U.S. agency to extend assistance to countries recovering from disaster, trying to escape poverty, and engaging in democratic reforms.
World Bank International Development Program (IDP)www.worldbank.org/ida The International Development Association (IDA) is the part of the World Bank that helps the world’s poorest countries. Established in 1960, IDA aims to reduce poverty by providing interest-free credits and grants for programs that boost economic growth, reduce inequalities and improve people’s living conditions.
The Carnegie Corporation- International Development Program (IDP) www.carnegie.org/sub/program/intl_development.html The International Development Program (IDP) was established in 1999 for the express purpose of carrying out Carnegie Corporation activities in sub-Saharan Africa. IDP “attempt[s] to strengthen a limited number of Commonwealth African universities to serve as models of successful transformation, assist the cause of women’s higher education there, and position selected African public libraries for the information age.”
The International Economic Development Council, IEDC,based in Washington, DC provides the leading source of education for economic developers at all levels. Courses are offered throughout the year in different geographical locations, ranging from basic economic development courses to Certified Economic Development programs.
International Development Exchange www.idex.org IDEX is a non-profit organization that partners with grassroots groups in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, while actively engaging and educating North Americans in the challenges facing communities in these regions.
Academy for Educational Development www.aed.org AED is a bridge, a link between the problem and the solution, the need and the resource, people and their potential. It is an independent, nonprofit organization committed to solving critical social problems and building the capacity of individuals, communities, and institutions to become more self-sufficient. AED works in all the major areas of human development, with a focus on improving education, health, and economic opportunities for the least advantaged in the United States and developing countries throughout the world.
National Association of Development Organizations www.nado.org The National Association of Development Organizations provides advocacy, education, research and training for the nation's regional development organizations. Building on nearly four decades of experience, the association offers its members exclusive access to a variety of services and benefits -- all of which are designed to enhance the ability of regional development organizations to foster "regional solutions" to local government, business and community needs.
Society for International Development www.sidw.org Society for International Development is a global network of individuals and institutions concerned with development. In its pursuit for social justice and institutional change, SID plays an important mediating and facilitating role among progressive civil society groups, connecting activists, intellectuals, academics and policy-makers working at community, national and international level.
Institute of International Education (IIE) www.iie.org Information about IIE international training programs, research on international education issues, and IEE services for students, advisers, or human resources professionals.
United Nations www.un.org The purposes of the United Nations, as set forth in the Charter, are to maintain international peace and security; to develop friendly relations among nations; to cooperate in solving international economic, social, cultural and humanitarian problems and in promoting respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms; and to be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations in attaining these ends.
NAFSA: Association of International Educators : supports those engaged in international education and exchange and global workforce development programs with educational programs, conferences, and publications. NAFSA publishes the journal International Educator to encourage dialogue about the importance of international education and the current challenges faced by those supporting it.
International Education Collaborative www.intled.org The International Education Collaborative (IEC) exists to provide advocacy for and facilitate collaboration among institutions of higher learning concerned with international education issues, most particularly international student recruitment. The International Education Collabortive seeks to develop and share best practices, tools, and technology to empower each geographic region/state to achieve maximum impact in worldwide marketing and student recruiting efforts.
List of the Academic Journals
• Analytical Reports in International Education
• Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education
1. American Educational Research Journal
2. Chinese Education and Society - Focus on educational development and the confluence between NGO’s with the development of China’s education.
3. Chronicle of Higher Education
4. Comparative Education
5. Contemporary Politics
6. Educational Review
7. Environmental Education Research - Focus on sustainable development, educational development and environmental education.
8. Higher Education
9. Higher Education in Europe
10. Higher Education: The International Journal of Higher Education and Educational Planning - Focus on sustainable development, profession education, curriculum development and environmental education.
11. Intercultural Education
12. International Journal of Educational Development
13. International Review of Education
14. Journal of Developing Studies
15. Journal of Education for International Development
16. Journal of Education Policy
17. Journal of Geography in Higher Education -Focus on professional development, sustainable development, curriculum development, and higher education.
18. Journal of Humanistic Counseling, and Educational Development
19. Journal of Studies In International Education.
20. Studies in Higher Education - Focus on education development, faculty development and professional development.
21. Teaching in Higher Education - Focus on intellectual development.
22. The Development Education Journal
23. National Center for Education Statistics - Focus on faculty development, program development and public schools.
TIPS & TRIKS Sekolah di Overseas (Luar Negeri)
1. Mimpi, Harapan, Cita-cita atau dalam Islam kita Sebut Niat yang Kuat
-"If You Can Dream It You Can Do It"-
Bisikanlah dalam hati kita yang paling dalam, bahkan palung qulbo yang tiada pernah seseorang pun masuk kedalamnya. Kita ingin jadi apa? Berbuat apa? Mengabdi pada siapa?
lalu yakinlah bahwa Sang Pengatur Jagat Raya akan mendengarnya, menuntunmu pada apa yang kita harapkan.
Bukankah Jikalau "DIA yang ESA" bilamana berkenan dan berkehendak cukup BagiNya berkata "Jadilah, maka Jadilah ia". Yasin: 82
Tulislah apa yang kita harapkan dan Impikan dalam kertas yang kita sayangi. buatlah peta konsepnya. Kapan terlaksana? Bagaimana? Dengan Cara Seperti Apa? Jagalah kertas atau tulisan itu baik-baik.
2. Pilih dimana kita ingin melanjutkan studi . -"Karena Setiap pilihan mempunyai kosekuensinya masing-masing, sebanding dengan apa yang kita pilih"-
a. Negara Mana Tujuan Kita?
b. Universitas atau Sekolah mana?
c. Pilih Jurusan dari Universitas atau College yang kita pilih!
-"GOOD PEREPARATIOAN, PERFECT APPLICATION"-
Dalam kesempatan ini kita bahas dan adakan tutorial berbagai bahasa yang banyak digunakan di dunia
Untuk berlatih bahasa asing silahkan penunjung yang berbahagia dan menginkan sebuah perubahan
kunjungi alamat ini
Jamison, Kevin (2004) . "Case for the Internationalization of Virginia High School Curricula", with commentary by Ambassador James Creagan, Christine Drake Phd, Senator Richard Lugar, and various other International Education experts.
Kagan, Sharon, and Vivien Stewart. "Introduction to International Education", originally published in Phi Delta Kappan, November 2004.
Abdi, Ali A. and Ailie Cleghorn, (Eds.). (2005). Issues in African Education: Sociological Perspectives. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Carter, Carolyn S. (1999). Education and Development in Poor Rural Communities: an Interdisciplinary Research Agenda. Charleston, WV: Clearinghouse on Rural Education and Small Schools, Appalachia Educational Laboratory.
Caillods, Francoise, Gabriele Gottelmann-Duret, Keith Lewin. (Eds.). (1997). Science Education and Development: Planning and Policy Issues at the Secondary Level. Paris: Unesco, International Institute for Educational Planning; Oxford, U.K.: Pergamon.
Cummings,William K. and Noel F. McGinn (Eds.). (1997). International Handbook of Education and Development : Preparing Schools, Students, and Nations for the Twenty-first Century. Kidlington, Oxford, UK; New York: Elsevier Science.
Garrett, Roger M. (Ed.). (1984). Education and Development. London: Croom Helm; New York: St. Martin’s Press.
Haddad, Wadi D. et al. (1990). Education and Development: Evidence for New Priorities. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.
Heward, Christine and Sheila Bunwaree. (Eds.). (1999). Gender, Education, and Development: Beyond Access to Empowerment. London; New York: Zed Books; New York: Distributed in USA exclusively by St. Martin’s Press.
Lynch, James. (1997). A Human Rights Analysis. Education and Development. London; Herndon, VA: Cassell.
Lynch, James, Celia Modgil and Sohan Modgil. (Eds.). (1997). Education and Development: Tradition and Innovation. London: Cassell, 1997.
Mak, Grace C. L. (Ed.), (1996). Women, Education, and Development in Asia : Cross-National Perspectives. New York: Garland Pub.
McMahon, Walter W. (1999). Education and Development: Measuring the Social Benefits. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press.
Morris, Paul and Anthony Sweeting, (Eds.). (1995). Education and Development in East Asia. New York: Garland Pub. 1995.
Nwomonoh, Jonathan. (1998). Education and Development in Africa : a Contemporary Survey. San Francisco: International Scholars Publications.
Peters, Michael A. and A.C. Besley. (2006). Building Knowledge Cultures: Education and Development in the Age of Knowledge Capitalism. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
Rojewski, Jay W. (Ed.). (2004). International Perspectives on Workforce Education and Development. Greenwich, Conn.: Information Age Pub.
Talati, Jamsheer J. et al. (1998). Higher Education: a Pathway to Development. Karachi: The Aga Khan University: Oxford University Press.
Youngman, Frank. (2000). The Political Economy of Adult Education and Development. Leicester, UK: NIACE; London; New York : Zed Books ; New York : Distributed in the USA exclusively by St. Martin’s Press.
World Population Monitoring, 2003: Population, Education and Development. (2005). Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. New York: United Nations.
CHAPTERS IN BOOKS
Arnove, Robert F., Stephen Franz and Kimberly Morse Cordova. (2001). Education and Development. In Hillman, Richard S. (Ed.), Understanding Contemporary Latin America. Boulder, Co.: L. Rienner.
Szirmai, Adam. (2005). Education and Development. In Dynamics of Socio-economic Development : An Introduction. Cambridge, UK; New York: Cambridge University Press. Walters, Shirley. (2000). Globalization, Adult Education, and Development. In Stromquist, Nelly P. and Karen Monkman (Eds.), Globalization and Education: Integration and Contestation Across Cultures. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield.
Brock, Colin; Cammish, Nadine; Aedo-Richmond, Ruth; Narayanan, Aparna; Njoroge, Rose (1997). Gender, Education and Development: A Partially Annotated and Selective Bibliography. Education Research Paper. London (England): Department for International Development.
(1996). Developing Areas Studies: A Guide to Reference Sources. Montreal (Quebec): McGill Univ., McLennan Library.
Heeg, Michael, Ed.; Boston, Carol, Ed (1996). Directory of Education-Related Information Centers. Rockville, MD. Washington, DC: ACCESS ERIC, Educational Resources Information Center (ED).
• Scanlon, D. G. (ed.). (1960). International Education: A Documentary History. New York: Bureau of Publications: Teachers College, Columbia University.
• Vestal, T.M. (1994). International Education: Its History and Promise for Today. London: Praeger.
• Valeau, E.J., Raby, R.L, (eds.), et. al. (2007). International Reform Efforts and Challenges in Community Colleges. New Direction for Community Colleges, No. 138. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
• NAFSA: Association of International Educators: NAFSA serves its members, their institutions and organizations, and others engaged in international education and exchange and global workforce development.
• Asia Society International Education
•  International Schools Services
• [http://internationaled.org/congressionaltestimony.htm#testimony Testimony on International Education before the
Subcommittee on Select Education, House Committee on Education and the Workforce ]
• National Geographic EdNet
• Oxfam Education
• Education for Global Leadership: The Importance of International Studies and Foreign Language Education for U.S. Economic and National Security - U.S. Committee for Economic Development
• Global Rhode Island
• International Education Week (IEW), a joint initiative of the U.S. Dept. of State and the U.S. Dept. of Education
• Current Challenges of International Education = From the Education Resources Information Center Clearinghouse on Higher Education Washington, DC.
Kamis, 04 September 2008
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