Minggu, 19 Oktober 2008

GURU SEBAGAI TENAGA PROFESSIONAL

Diedit dan ditambah
oleh:
Bapak Endang J. S.Pd., Bapak Drs. Ahmad S. dan Bapak Nanang S.

SMAN 1 Banjar, Jawa Barat

Arip Nurahman

(Indonesia University of Education, Bandung Indonesia & Open Course Ware at The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.)

Abstract

In education, a teacher is one who helps students or pupils, often in a school, as well as in a family, religious or community setting. A teacher is an acknowledged guide or helper in processes of learning. A teacher's role may vary between cultures. Academic subjects are emphasized in many societies, but a teacher's duties may include instruction in craftsmanship or vocational training, spirituality, civics, community roles, or life skills. In modern schools and most contemporary occidental societies, where scientific pedagogy is practiced, the teacher is defined as a specialized profession on the same level as many other professions.

Introduction

Teaching may be carried out informally, within the family (see Homeschooling) or the wider community. Formal teaching may be carried out by paid professionals. Such professionals enjoy a status in some societies on a par with physicians, lawyers, engineers, and accountants (Chartered or CPA).

A teacher's professional duties may extend beyond formal teaching. Outside of the classroom teachers may accompany students on field trips, supervise study halls, help with the organization of school functions, and serve as supervisors for extracurricular activities. In some education systems, teachers may have responsibility for student discipline.

Around the world teachers are often required to obtain specialized education and professional licensure. The teaching profession is regarded for having a body of specialised professional knowledge, codes of ethics and internal monitoring.

There are a variety of bodies designed to instill, preserve and update the knowledge and professional standing of teachers. Around the world many governments operate teacher's colleges, which are generally established to serve and protect the public interest through certifying, governing and enforcing the standards of practice for the teaching profession.

The functions of the teacher's colleges may include setting out clear standards of practice, providing for the ongoing education of teachers, investigating complaints involving members, conducting hearings into allegations of professional misconduct and taking appropriate disciplinary action and accrediting teacher education programs. In many situations teachers in publicly funded schools must be members in good standing with the college, and private schools may also require their teachers to be college members. In other areas these roles may belong to the State Board of Education, the Superintendent of Public Instruction, the State Education Agency or other governmental bodies. In still other areas Teaching Unions may be responsible for some or all of these duties.

Contents

Pedagogy and teaching

In education, teachers facilitate student learning, often in a school or academy or perhaps in another environment such as outdoors. A teacher who teaches on an individual basis may be described as a tutor.

The objective is typically accomplished through either an informal or formal approach to learning, including a course of study and lesson plan that teaches skills, knowledge and/or thinking skills. Different ways to teach are often referred to as pedagogy. When deciding what teaching method to use teachers consider students' background knowledge, environment, and their learning goals as well as standardized curricula as determined by the relevant authority. Many times, teachers assist in learning outside of the classroom by accompanying students on field trips. The increasing use of technology, specifically the rise of the internet over the past decade has begun to shape the way teachers approach their role in the classroom.

The objective is typically a course of study, lesson plan, or a practical skill. A teacher may follow standardized curricula as determined by the relevant authority. The teacher may interact with students of different ages, from infants to adults, students with different abilities and students with learning disabilities.

Secondary School Teachers

Perhaps the most significant difference between primary and secondary teaching in the UK is the relationship between teachers and children. In primary schools each class has a teacher who stays with them for most of the week and will teach them the whole curriculum. In secondary schools they will be taught by different subject specialists each session during the week and may have 10 or more different teachers. The relationship between children and their teachers tends to be closer in the primary school where they act as form tutor, specialist teacher and surrogate parent during the course of the day.

This is true throughout most of the United States as well. However, alternative approaches for primary education do exist. One of these, sometimes referred to as a "platoon" system, involves placing a group of students together in one class that moves from one specialist to another for every subject. The advantage here is that students learn from teachers who specialize in one subject and who tend to be more knowledgeable in that one area than a teacher who teaches many subjects. Students still derive a strong sense of security by staying with the same group of peers for all classes.

Co-teaching has also become a new trend amongst educational institutions. Co-teaching is defined as two or more teachers working harmoniously to fulfill the needs of every student in the classroom. Co-teaching focuses the student on learning by providing a social networking support that allows them to reach their full cognitive potential. Co-teachers work in sync with one another to create a climate of learning.


Berbicara tentang cita-cita anak-anak di masa sekarang tentu sudah akan berbeda dengan 20 bahkan 10 tahun yang lalu, dimana lebih banyak anak yang bercita-cita menjadi dokter, pengacara, maupun pilot. Kemudian dimana anak-anak memposisikan guru? Bukankah setiap hari mereka selalu berhadapan dengan guru mereka dan berinteraksi dengan mereka?

Berbicara mengenai guru, tentu yang akan terlintas dalam benak kita adalah gaji yang sedikit serta kualitas mereka. Jika kita sering memperhatikan berita-berita yang ada di surat kabar, cerita tentang nasib guru bukanlah cerita yang menyenangkan, akan tetapi cerita yang suram dan menyedihkan. Misalnya nasib guru kontrak yang ada di wilayah-wilayah pelosok Indonesia. Hal ini tentu dapat dijadikan refleksi bagi institusi penghasil guru serta pemerintah.

Ketika kondisi pendidikan di Indonesia semakin memprihatinkan, dimana biaya pendidikan semakin mahal, masyarakat menuntut kualitas pengajaran yang baik. Sebagaimana dikemukakan oleh Freire (2002), pendidikan harus melibatkan tiga unsur sekaligus dalam hubungan dialektisnya yang ajeg, yaitu pengajar, pelajar atau anak didik, serta realitas dunia, maka kita tidak dapat menyalahkan guru semata yang mungkin dinilai tidak qualified untuk mengajar, melainkan kita juga perlu mempertimbangkan faktor-faktor yang lain yang mendukung kondisi pendidikan kita.

Peningkatan kualitas para guru memang masih dipertanyakan sampai sekarang ini. Fenomena yang ada di masyarakat menunjukkan bahwa banyak para sarjana di bidang non kependidikan mengambil alternatif program tambahan Akta IV atau program kependidikan guna mendapat sertifikat supaya dapat menjadi guru. Pada umumnya mereka mengambil alternatif Akta IV sebagai alternatif terakhir mengingat pekerjaan yang lain sangat sulit diperoleh. Bagaimana dengan kualitas mereka, benarkah mereka mampu menjadi guru sebagai tenaga profesional?

Terkadang manusia melihat suatu jenis pekerjaan berdasarkan prestigenya. Seperti menjadi dokter tentu masyakarat akan lebih menghargainya dibandingkan guru. Selain gaji yang berbeda, proses pembelajaran yang dijalani oleh calon dokter juga berbeda dengan calon guru. Sehingga sudah merupakan hal yang lumrah dimana gaji yang mereka peroleh di masa bekerjanya cukup besar yaitu seimbang dengan biaya yang dikeluarkan selama proses belajar untuk menjadi dokter.

Alangkah bahagianya para guru itu jika mendapatkan reward yang hampir sama dengan dokter. Mereka tidak harus terus mengemban label "pahlawan tanpa tanda jasa" bukan? Sebaiknya institusi penghasil guru perlu mempertimbangkan hal-hal sebagai berikut: 1) Memperbaiki kurikulum perkuliahan dengan menekankan pada kompetensi guru yang berkualitas; 2) Memasukkan program pembekalan lapangan dalam proses belajar-mengajar selama jangka waktu 1 tahun di sekolah-sekolah yang membutuhkan tenaga pengajar sebagai wahana pembentukan tenaga guru yang profesional.

Kemudian dari pemerintah diharapkan dapat melaksanakan program penempatan guru di wilayah-wilayah pelosok Indonesia yang masih banyak mnembutuhkan guru dengan memberikan gaji yang sesuai, oleh karena itu anggaran pendidikan perlu ditingkatkan. Peningkatan anggaran ini tidak hanya untuk mensejahterakan guru sebagai tenaga pengajar, melainkan juga untuk mengembangkan program-program untuk meningkatkan mutu pendidikan. Semua usaha ini jika dapat dilaksanakan secara sinergis maka sedikit demi sedikit akan meningkatkan kualitas pendidikan di Indonesia yang selama ini masih merupakan suatu impian masyarakat Indonesia pada umumnya.

Closing

See also

* Certified teacher
* Paraprofessional educator
* College of Education
* Student teacher
* Teacher's union
* Substitute teacher


References

www.banjarcyberschool.co.cc

1. http://www.tda.gov.uk/upload/resources/pdf/t/teacher_salaries.pdf 'Teacher Salaries from September 2007' TDA (Training and Development Agency)
2. Department of Education & Science - - Education Personnel
3. Training to be a teacher GTC Scotland
4. Teach in Scotland
5. Elementary School Teachers, Except Special Education
6. Middle School Teachers, Except Special and Vocational Education
7. Secondary School Teachers, Except Special and Vocational Education
8. "U.S. Department of Labor: Bureau of Labor Statistics. (July 18, 2007). Teachers—Preschool, Kindergarten, Elementary, Middle, and Secondary: Earnings.". Retrieved on 2007-10-11.

1 komentar:

E-Learning Kota Banjar mengatakan...

Bagaimana Menjadi Siswa Sekolah Bertaraf Internasional
(An Experiences/ Sebuah Pengalaman)

Diedit dan ditambah
oleh:
Bapak Endang J. S.Pd., Bapak Drs. Ahmad S. dan Bapak Nanang S.

SMAN 1 Banjar, Jawa Barat

Arip Nurahman

(Indonesia University of Education, Bandung Indonesia & Open Course Ware at The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.)

Abstract

The word student is etymologically derived through Middle English from the Latin second-type conjugation verb "stud─ôre", meaning "to direct one's zeal at"; hence a student could be described as 'one who directs zeal at a subject'. In its widest use, "student" is used for anyone who is learning

United Kingdom and Ireland

The term student is usually reserved for people studying at University level in the UK. Children studying at school are called pupils.

Students In England and Ireland

In England and Wales, teenagers in the last two years of school are called "sixth formers". If pupils follow the average pattern of school attendance, pupils will be in the "lower sixth" between the ages of 16 and 17, and the "upper sixth" between 17 and 18. They "go up" to University after the upper sixth.

In Scotland pupils sit Highers at the end of fifth year (when aged 16-17) after which it is possible for them to gain entry to university. However, many do not achieve the required grades and remain at school for sixth year. Even among those that do achieve the necessary grades it is common to remain at school and undertake further study (i.e. other subjects or Advanced Highers) and then start university at the same time as their friends and peers.

Students in United States

Before first year

Some schools use the term "prefrosh" or "pre-frosh" to describe their newly admitted students. Schools often offer a campus preview weekend for prefroshes to know the schools better. A student is considered a prefrosh until he or she registers for the first class.


First year

A freshman (slang alternatives that are usually derogatory in nature include "fish", "fresher", "frosh", "newbie", "freshie", "snotter", "fresh-meat", etc.) is a first-year student in college, university or high school. The less-common[citation needed] gender-neutral synonym "first-year student" exists; the variation "freshperson" is rare.[citation needed]

In many traditions there is a remainder of the ancient (boarding, pre-commuting) tradition of fagging. He may also be subjected to a period of hazing or ragging as a pledge(r) or rookie, especially if joining a fraternity/sorority or certain other clubs, mainly athletic teams. For example, many high schools have initiation methods for freshmen, including, but not limited to, Freshman Duct-taped Throw, Freshman races, Freshman Orientation, Freshman Freshening (referring to poor hygiene among freshmen), and the Freshman Spread.

Even after that, specific rules may apply depending on the school's traditions (e.g., wearing a distinctive beanie), non-observance of which may result in punishment in which the paddle may come into play.

Second year

In the U.S., a sophomore is a second-year student. Folk etymology has it that the word means "wise fool"; consequently "sophomoric" means "pretentious, bombastic, inflated in style or manner; immature, crude, superficial" (according to the Oxford English Dictionary). It appears to be most likely formed from Greek "sophos", meaning "wise", and "moros" meaning "foolish", although it may also have separately originated from the word "sophumer", an obsolete variant of "sophism"[1]. Outside of the U.S. the term "sophomore" is rarely used, with second-year students simply called "second years".

Post-second year

In the U.S. a "junior" is a student in the penultimate (usually third) year and a "senior" a student in the last (usually fourth) year of college, university, or high school. A college student who takes more than the normal number of years to graduate is sometimes referred to as a "super senior".[2] The term "underclassman" is used to refer collectively to freshmen and sophomores, and "upperclassman" to refer collectively to juniors and seniors, sometimes even sophomores. The term "middler" is used to describe a third-year student of a school (generally college) which offers five years of study. In this situation, the fourth and fifth years would be referred to as "junior" and "senior" years, respectively.


Introduction

International students are students, usually in early adulthood, who study in foreign educational institutions. While most universities have official student exchange programs, some well-funded high schools have them, too. Although some students travel abroad mainly to improve their language skills, others travel to advance their specialized studies. Still others study abroad because suitable tertiary education is either in short supply or unavailable altogether in their home countries. In addition, in many parts of the world, a foreign degree, especially if earned from certain countries, is honored more than a local one.

Contents

Aspek-aspek yang dikembangkan pada Sekolah Bertaraf Internasional adalah standar kompetensi

lulusan standar Internasional,
kurikulum standar internasional,
PBM standar internasional,
SDM standar internasional,
fasilitas standar internasional,
manajemen standar internasional,
pembiayaan standar internasional,
penilaian standar internasional.

Standar kompetensi lulusan Sekolah Bertaraf Internasional adalah keberhasilan lulusan yang melanjutkan ke sekolah internasional dalam negeri maupun di luar negeri dengan tetap berkepribadian bangsa Indonesia,

menguasai dan terampil menggunakan ICT,
mampu debat dengan Bahasa Inggris,

terdapat juara internasional dalam bidang:
olahraga,
kesenian,
kesehatan,
budaya, dll,

mampu menyelesaikan, tugas–tugas dan mengumpulkan portofolio dengan baik,

mampu meyampaikan/mendemonstrasikan tugas-tugas dari guru/sekolah,

mampu melaksanakan eksprimen dalam pengembangan pe­ngetahuan dan keterampilan,

mampu menemukan / mem­buktikan pengalaman bela­jarnya dengan berbagai karya,

mampu menulis dan mengarang dengan bahasa asing atau dengan bahasa Indonesia yang baik dan benar,

memperoleh kejuaraan olimpiade internasional dalam bidang:
matematika,
fisika,
biologi,
kimia,
stronomi, dan atau lainnya
Iditunjukkan dengan sertifikat internasional),

NUAN rata-rata tinggi (> 7,5),

memiliki kemampuan penguasaan teknologi dasar,

melakukan kerjasama dengan berbagai pihak, baik secara individual, kelompok/kolektif (lokal, nasional, regional, dan global) dengan bukti ada piagam kerjasama atau MoU yang dilakukan oleh lulusan,

memiliki dokumen lulusan tentang karya tulis, persuratan, administrasi sekolah, penelitian, dll dalam bahasa asing atau dengan bahasa Indonesia yang baik dan benar,

memiliki dokumen dan pelaksanaan, pengelolaan kegiatan belajar secara baik (ada perencanaan, pengorganisasian, pelaksanaan, pengkoordinasian, dan evaluasi) dari lulusan, menguasai budaya bangsa lain, memiliki dokumen karya tulis, nilai, dll tentang pemahaman budaya bangsa lain dari lulusan,

memiliki pemahaman terhadap kepedulian dengan lingkungan sekitar sekolah, baik lingkungan sosial, fisik maupun budaya,

memiliki berbagai karya-karya lain dari lulusan yang bermanfaat bagi dirinya maupun orang lain, bangsa, dll, dan terdapat usaha-usaha dan atau karya yang mencerminkan jiwa kewirausahaan lulusan.

Begitu banyak kriteria yang harus dimiliki oleh SISWA SEKOLAH BERTARAF INTERNATIONAL, menurut pengalaman penulis kriteria ini memang sangat sulit sekali diraih oleh tiap individu pada diri siswa. Namun tidak ada yang tidak mungkin bila kita terus berusaha dengan tekun dan optimal serta sistematis.

Pengalaman Penulis ketika berusaha bagaimana untuk menjadi seorang SISWA SEKOLAH BERTARAF INTERNATIONAL? adalah tidak serumit dan sekomplikasi seperti yang disebutkan dalam kriteria tadi.
KUNCINYA ADALAH:

1. KEJUJURAN YANG KONSISTEN
2. PENGUASAAN BAHASA INGGRIS YANG MATANG
3. PENGUASAAN ICT (TEKNOLOGI INFORMASI & KOMUNIKASI) YANG MEMADAI
4. MAMPU MENULIS DAN MEMPUBLIKASIKAN KARYA-KARYA ILMIAH

Cukuplah 4 keterampilan awal ini yang harus dikembangkan dalam diri SISWA, dengan KEJUJURAN maka potensi sisiwa yang sesungguhnya akan muncul. Mengusai Bahasa Inggris adalah awal atau kunci pembuka ilmu-ilmu pengetahuan pendukung lainnya.
Mampu memanfaatkan ICT maka SISWA mampu menjalin relasi dengan berbagai orang dari belahan dunia manapun.
Terampil menulis dan mempublikasikan Karya-karya Ilmiah, siswa akan mendapat kepercayaan luas dari masyarakat Luas, terutama oleh masyarakat AKADEMIS.
Dengan niat yang sungguh-sungguh dan keyakinan semoga setiap jiwa-jiwa yang ingin menggapai tujuan akan dibimbing oleh DIA YANG MAHA DI ATAS SEGALANYA.


Prospective international students are usually required to sit for language tests, such as IELTS[1] & TOEFL[2](English speaking education), DELF[3] (French speaking education) or DELE[4] (Spanish speaking education), before they are admitted. Tests notwithstanding, while some international students already possess an excellent command of the local language upon arrival, some find their language ability, considered excellent domestically, inadequate for the purpose of understanding lectures, and/or of conveying oneself fluently in rapid conversations.

Many countries force international students to pay higher tuition than citizens of the country. This discrimination is usually justified by the argument that the students' parents do not pay taxes in the country. The fact that a large number of international students decide to settle in the country where they are studying and become productive citizens is, however, ignored in such cases.

Criticisms

International student programs have over the years encountered a number of criticisms, both from the host countries and from the international students themselves. While some of the criticisms are well-founded, others are based on misperceptions or even racism.

International student programs can be a politically sensitive issue in the host countries. Opponents of the programs fear that international students would take the limited university placements away from local students. Proponents of the programs counter this belief by arguing that the high fees paid by international students enable universities to maintain, or even increase, placements for local students.

It is not unusual for international students to encounter language problems in the host countries. Despite the pre-admission language tests — which might give the students a false sense of mastery over a foreign language — students often find it difficult to understand the coursework, and some might feel that their lecturers are unhelpful in explaining the coursework to them. Academics, under pressure from cash-strapped university authorities to retain international students, sometimes make the courses easier, to the resentment of many local students. It has been speculated that language difficulties may contribute to the problem of plagiarism, particularly in the form of using essay mills.[5]

Finally, many would-be employers, especially those within the host countries, find some former international students have unsatisfactory language abilities, despite having earned university degrees.

A major drawback of International Students Programs is the reluctance of universities, in the host country, to face immigration limitations and expose them clearly to their incoming foreign students.

* They may have difficulties in obtaining a long term work visa.
* They may face as a consequence large salary gaps in comparison to their fellow nationals.
* The tuition fees may be too high with respect to their work prospects.
* They may be barred from high profile jobs where citizenship is a prerequisite.

See also

* Immigration
* ISIC card
* Casaswap accommodation network
* International Baccalaureate
* Erasmus programme
* Fulbright Fellowship
* Student exchange program
* Japanese students in Britain
* Vulcanus in Japan
* International Students Day
* Barriers to employment for international students
* Apprentices mobility
* Goodwill Scholarships

Organizations

* Nafsa: Association of International Educators
* International Union of Students
* Brethren Colleges Abroad
* Cultural Experiences Abroad
* Amizade

References

* 1. http://www.ielts.org/ IELTS
* 2. http://www.ets.org TOEFL
* 3. http://french.about.com/ DELF
* 4. http://www.donquijote.org/english/courses.dele.asp DELE
* 5. http://www.smh.com.au/news/opinion/plagiarism-rises-amid-funding-cuts/2006/11/22/1163871480372.html Plagiarism rises amid funding cuts

External links

* NAFSA's Official Website
* International Union of Students
* Official Website for Brethren Colleges Abroad (BCA)
* Official Website for Amizade
* List of tips for international students coming to study in the U.S. -- Collected throughout the years from the international MBA students of Babson College